In viewing the material, which can be paged through in a PDF type format, by clicking arrows, it’s easy to see that the digitization of Newton’s papers have come none too soon, as many of the pages are tattered, smeared and even burned-looking in some places. Thus, not only has putting the papers online made them accessible to anyone with a computer and an Internet connection, it has also caused them to be saved for posterity in an electronic form that will ensure they will be accessible to all those who may wish to view them in the future as well.It was in Principia Mathematica that Newton laid out his theories on the laws of motion and universal gravitation which some suggest laid the groundwork for Einstein’s theories on relativity. And if that weren’t enough, Newton is also widely credited with “inventing” calculus, a mathematical science without which the modern world would simply not exist.In all there are more than 4,000 pages of Newton’s work displayed on the site, which took a team of photo copyists the better part of this past summer to capture, though it’s obvious in looking at the results that there were many slow-downs as pages had to have some restorative efforts made in order to present them. Those working on the project are to be commended as the results show great care and dedication to a single purpose; namely showcasing one of history’s brightest minds.It’s intriguing to see the notes Newton himself made on the first edition of Principia Mathematica, in preparing for the second, and happily, the University has announced that they will be adding translations for all of the text and notes as early as next year.The University has also announced plans to make the works of other famous scientists available as the future unfolds and hopefully will continue to add more of the Newton library too, as thus far only about 20% of their collection has been made available online. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Citation: Cambridge University puts Newton’s papers online (2011, December 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-cambridge-university-newton-papers-online.html (PhysOrg.com) — In a project that has long been overdue, Cambridge University, thanks to a hefty gift from the Polonsky Foundation (supporter of education and arts) and a grant from Britain’s Joint Information Services Committee (JISC), has put some of Isaac Newton’s original papers online for any and all to see. Of particular interest to most will be Newton’s own annotated copy of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, considered by many to be one of the greatest published works by any scientist ever. For those looking for a little behind the scenes work, the University has also published Newton’s so-called “Waste Book,” a diary of sorts that Newton inherited from his step-father which he took along with him and used for jotting notes about such things as his ideas on calculus while away from school due to the Great Plague in 1665. Researcher uses card trick to reveal unconscious knowledge Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—As humans, we have a strong sense of fairness that often causes us to go out of our way to punish an unfair person, even when such an action comes at a cost to ourselves. This desire for fairness is epitomized by the ultimatum game, in which two players must share a sum of money. One player offers a certain nonnegotiable portion to the other player, who either accepts or declines, but declining means neither player gets any money. Copyright 2012 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Examples of the spatial patterns that emerge for different combinations of p and q, where colors represent strategies. Image copyright: Szolnoki, et al. ©2012 American Physical Society Although a rational player – sometimes called Homo economicus – should accept any offer no matter how small so that they at least gain something, experiments show that this is not what happens in reality. Instead, people act more like an emotional Homo emoticus, refusing to accept offers they perceive as too small. Experiments show that people reject offers of less than 33% half the time. But low offers aren’t very common in the first place, since about two-thirds of the time the offer made by the first player is very close to a fair 50:50 split.Researchers have proposed many explanations for the underlying psychology that causes people to demand fairness. Studies have shown that, while models of natural selection favor the evolution of the rational Homo economicus who accepts anything and offers little, arranging the game spatially can lead to the evolution of fairness. In spatial games, players have restricted connections with other players and can only interact with players in close proximity to themselves.In a new study, researchers have used statistical physics techniques to support this idea. They show that, in a spatial ultimatum game in which one player adopts its neighbor’s strategy when it has worked better than its own, the fair 50:50 strategy can evolve. Results reveal hidden complexity in the pursuit of fair play, with various strategy combinations dominating in cycles.The researchers, Attila Szolnoki and György Szabó at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest, along with Matjaž Perc at the University of Maribor in Slovenia, have published their study on the results of the spatial ultimatum game in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. Explore further While many versions of the ultimatum game have already been proposed, the new version differs in that it limits the offers and acceptance levels that players can use to discrete values rather than a full continuum. As the scientists explain, this discreteness reflects real life situations, since we often haggle over a price by increasing or decreasing it by certain amount. Accordingly, each player employs one of six strategies, which are characterized by both the offer (p) and acceptance level (q). Five of the six strategies are considered empathetic, where p = q; that is, players accept the same amount they offer. The value of 50% is considered the perfectly fair strategy, while values greater than 50% are considered “superfair” and those less than 50% are considered rational. In the sixth strategy, p and q are chosen arbitrarily. Journal information: Physical Review Letters More information: Attila Szolnoki, et al. “Defense Mechanisms of Empathetic Players in the Spatial Ultimatum Game.” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 078701 (2012). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.078701 Citation: Fairness can evolve by imitating one’s neighbor: physicists (2012, August 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-fairness-evolve-imitating-neighbor.html To begin the game, each player is randomly assigned a strategy. Then a randomly selected player plays the ultimatum game with its four nearest neighbors, acting once as proposer and once as responder with each neighbor. Then one of the four neighbors engages in the same interactions, and the payoffs of this player and the first randomly selected player are compared. One player will adopt the other’s strategy with a certain probability depending on which player performed better. After many iterations, the idea is that better-performing strategies will grow in popularity and come to dominate the game.What the researchers found, however, was not a single strategy emerging to dominate. Instead, as the game evolved, one strategy might dominate for a time, then an alliance of two or three strategies would arise and dominate for a time, then one of these strategies would dominate single-handedly, only to be taken over later by one or more other strategies. Although the fair 50:50 strategy could survive and occasionally co-dominate, it never dominated by itself, suggesting that the evolution of fairness is rather complex because the fair strategy elevates the survivability of the other strategies. Another highlight was the survival and occasional co-domination of the “superfair” strategy, in which a player offers and accepts amounts greater than 50%.”Although it has been reported before that spatial structure can promote the evolution of fairness, the discreetness of strategies introduced in our case reveals just how many paths to this particular scenario there are,” Perc told Phys.org. “Pattern formation can be crucial for the outcome of human bargaining, and we present many different solutions, including up to three-strategy dominance cycles and self-organizing spatial patterns, such as traveling invasion fronts and rotating spirals, that are representative for the studied system. While spatial structure is already established as a means for resolving social dilemmas, it has thus far not been considered so crucial in the context of human bargaining. We show that the discreteness of strategies changes this rather drastically, as it unleashes the full complexity of human bargaining. From experience, everybody knows that bargaining can be a rather complex undertaking. Our work accounts for this complexity.”By modeling fairness in a realistic way, the study could provide insight into the nature of fairness and human bargaining in real life. “The importance of fairness really cannot be overstated,” Perc said. “Just as the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of fairness is one of the central pillars of successful human societies. Accordingly, we need all the insights we can get to understand how fairness emerges, what promotes it, and what prevents it from vanishing from our moral compass. In addition to these rather practical reasons, there are further incentives as to why study this. As some experimental works already reported, our brain ‘rewards’ fair behavior and also makes us ‘punish’ immoral acts by not accepting unfair offers. Such brain activity, which ‘drives us’ to a globally more successful solution, is probably a result of an evolutionary process of human interactions. A theoretical work like ours helps to understand and reveal the evolutionary origin of this behavior.” Phase diagram showing dominant strategies as a function of offers (p) and acceptance levels (q). The main finding is that a rich array of single- and multi-strategy phases emerge when p>q. Image copyright: Szolnoki, et al. ©2012 American Physical Society Logic fights impulse in economic decision-making
The Artega SE enters the electric sports car arena © 2013 Phys.org (Phys.org) —Look what just pulled up to claim a parking spot in the electric sports car market. Detroit Electric has unveiled the SP:01, an all-electric car. With a top speed of 155 mph, the makers say it is the world’s fastest production electric car. The two-seater SP:01 can stay on the go for 190 miles on a single charge. According to Detroit Electric, “With an impressive energy storage capacity of 37 kWh, the battery gives the SP:01 a range of almost 190 miles between recharges, when tested to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) standard.” Further details provided by the company include: rear-wheel-drive; carbon fiber bodywork; a length of 3880mm; width of 1751mm; height of 1117mm; wheelbase of 2300mm; and weight of 1070kg. Inside, the SP:01 has a “SAMI” (Smartphone Application Managed Infotainment) system to access functions, including music player, satellite navigation, interior lighting adjust and information about the car’s system, e.g., battery charge and recharge. For the 999 owners, the car will be viewed as rather unique. The company said less than a thousand will be built—999 is the production target— and this limited production run starts in August at the company’s production facility in Michigan. The cars will be sold worldwide. The price of the SP:01 will start at $135,000. The price could vary according to specs and local taxes. Each car will carry a three-year, 30,000-mile warranty. There will be an optional extension for the battery to five years and 50,000 miles.The company took the wraps off its SP:01 at Detroit Electric’s new headquarters in Detroit. Citation: Detroit Electric pegs SP:01 production output at 999 (2013, April 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-detroit-electric-pegs-sp01-production.html More information: www.detroit-electric.com/models.php Explore further Detroit Electric’s design has been described outside the company as “Lotus-based.” The company’s drew Albert Lam, who served as the chief executive of Lotus Engineering, and he was named CEO of Detroit Electric in 2008. As the company tells it, the “Detroit Electric story was recharged, rebooted and re-launched” by Lam. Interestingly, the research engineers are describing SP:01 as a “mobile energy unit” as well as a car, as the user can harness its stored battery energy to power not just the car. “SP:01 is equipped with bi-directional charge and discharge capability, allowing it to release its stored electrical energy to power a home.” The car’s battery cell type is lithium polymer and the charge time is 4.3 hours. (Detroit Electric’s web site says the charge time is 4.3 [email protected] and 10.7 hours using the EU standard outlet.) This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: Stephan Getzin et al. Discovery of fairy circles in Australia supports self-organization theory, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1522130113AbstractVegetation gap patterns in arid grasslands, such as the “fairy circles” of Namibia, are one of nature’s greatest mysteries and subject to a lively debate on their origin. They are characterized by small-scale hexagonal ordering of circular bare-soil gaps that persists uniformly in the landscape scale to form a homogeneous distribution. Pattern-formation theory predicts that such highly ordered gap patterns should be found also in other water-limited systems across the globe, even if the mechanisms of their formation are different. Here we report that so far unknown fairy circles with the same spatial structure exist 10,000 km away from Namibia in the remote outback of Australia. Combining fieldwork, remote sensing, spatial pattern analysis, and process-based mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that these patterns emerge by self-organization, with no correlation with termite activity; the driving mechanism is a positive biomass–water feedback associated with water runoff and biomass-dependent infiltration rates. The remarkable match between the patterns of Australian and Namibian fairy circles and model results indicate that both patterns emerge from a nonuniform stationary instability, supporting a central universality principle of pattern-formation theory. Applied to the context of dryland vegetation, this principle predicts that different systems that go through the same instability type will show similar vegetation patterns even if the feedback mechanisms and resulting soil–water distributions are different, as we indeed found by comparing the Australian and the Namibian fairy-circle ecosystems. These results suggest that biomass–water feedbacks and resultant vegetation gap patterns are likely more common in remote drylands than is currently known. (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers from Germany, Israel and Australia has confirmed that fairy circles exist in a part of the Australian outback. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers describe not only evidence for fairy circles in Australia, but evidence of why they form. A fairy circle in the Western Australian outback. Credit: Stephan Getzin. © 2016 Phys.org The researchers suggest the circles form due to competition for water in the arid area—dominant plants pull more water from the soil than less dominant plants eventually leading to the death of weaker plants and leaving bare earth behind. When it does rain, the water on the surface drains to plants around the rim. In Africa, where the soil is sandier, the water is pulled from the circle underneath by strong rooted grass plants. Mysterious fairy circles demystified: it’s termites (Update) An aerial view on the Australian fairy circles which spread homogeneously over the landscape. Credit: Kevin Sanders Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further Prior to this new discovery, fairy circles have only ever been seen in Namibia, Africa, where they have elicited explanations for their existence from various people for hundreds, if not thousands of years. More recently, scientists have been split between two explanations—that termites are responsible for their formation or that they are self forming due to the way grasses pull moisture from the soil.Fairy circles are bald patches in fields of grass and are evenly spaced over a large area in a hexagonal pattern. Each patch is typically circular with a diameter of several feet. Because the ground is red, the patches stand out against the green and brown grass, particularly when seen from an airplane. In this new effort, one of the members of the research team, Stephan Getzin was part of another team that published a paper supporting the self-forming theory—that paper came to the attention of Bronwyn Bell, an environmental manager for a mining company who noticed a resemblance between pictures in the paper and patches in areas near the mines where she worked. She contacted Getzin, who promptly organized a team to investigate.The researchers studied the circles both on the ground and from the air, and determined that despite drastic differences in soil makeup, the circles appeared to be nearly identical to those in Africa. The finding has led credence to the natural formation theory because termites are sparse in the area where the circles exist in Australia. Citation: Fairy circles found in Australian outback (2016, March 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-fairy-circles-australian-outback.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
In a recent study, now published in Biomedical Materials, IOP Science, Christiane Heinemann and co-workers at the Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials and Institute of Materials Science in Germany, engineered isolated nanospheres using organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) – to form a composite scaffold aligning with preceding work of the same research team. Heinemann et al. engineered the new biomaterial using an electric field-assisted ion double migration process and embedded the nanospheres thus formed, in the foamed gelatin organic template, to form the composite scaffold. The scientists tested the biodegradation rates of the biomaterials to show that they correlated with the degree of crosslinking (40%, 80%) conveyed during scaffold preparation and with the mineral content of the scaffolds (0%, 20%, 40%). They used a human cell co-culture model of osteoblasts and osteoclasts derived from bone marrow stromal cells and monocytes, to test the impact of ormoHAP-gelatin scaffolds on cell growth and differentiation for a period of 42 days. The results confirmed that ormoHAP embedded in the gelatin matrix enhanced TRAP5b bioactivity (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b); a group of enzymes synthesized in bone, followed by increased ALP activity (alkaline phosphatase, an osteoblast marker) and increased gene expression of BSPII (bone sialoprotein II – encoding a major structural protein of the bone matrix) in osteoblasts. The scientists proposed a sequence of cell cross-talk interactions, due to the presence and concentration of ormoHAP in the material, to explain the observed behavior in cell co-cultures in vitro. The scientists determined the effects of the percentage of gelatin cross-linking and the concentration of ormoHAP on the bioactivity and degradation of the new material, with comparative studies. In degradation studies with SBF or PBS, scaffolds with a lower degree of cross-linking degraded much faster, than those with higher cross-linking. By day 56, the scientists observed higher levels of bioactivity on scaffolds with 20 percent ormoHAP; determined by quantifying the levels of surface bound calcium. Although a concentration of 40 percent ormoHAP showed promising results initially, the values of surface-bound calcium decreased with time. During co-culture experiments Heinemann et al. therefore compared two different concentrations of ormoHAP (20 percent and 40 percent), alongside scaffolds made of pure gelatin alone. The scientists strategically conducted cell culture studies from day 14 to day 28 and up until day 42, then using DNA analysis they quantified the cell nuclei and calculated the rate of cell proliferation to assess the total number of cells on the material surfaces, with no significant difference observed between the surfaces. They quantified ALP activity, to assess osteogenic differentiation in monoculture and co-culture, which decreased after 14 days as cell maturation increased. To investigate the differentiation of hMc to hOB in co-culture, the scientists quantified TRAP5b activity, which remarkably increased with increasing ormoHAP content in the scaffold composition for material-assisted cell growth. By day 42 however the rates of enzyme activity decreased due to the limited lifespan of osteoclast cells. Heinemann et al. next conducted confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) imaging to investigate co-culture interactions on the scaffold. SEM images of foamed scaffolds without mineral (a), (d), with 20% ormoHAP (b), (e) or with 20% commercially available HAP (c), (f). Scale bars represent 20 μm (top column), and 5 μm (bottom column). Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab0fad Explore further The hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocrystals self-assembled in the organic environment to form hollow spherical agglomerates in the experiments, which the scientists first characterized in depth due to their role in forming the bone substitute materials (BSM). Heinemann et al. chose gelatin as the underlying scaffold matrix material due to its compatibility with the electric field-assisted mineral formation process of nanospheres, while both constituents of the composite (HAP and gelatin) showed cytocompatibility during cell-material interactions as shown in previous studies in vitro. Bioplotting bone-mimetic 3-D tissue scaffolds with osteogenic effects The scientists therefore unified the results of many previous studies in the present work, to determine the formation of bone-tissue like extracellular matrix deposits guided by the underlying biomaterial. Heinemann et al. co-cultured human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) with human osteoblasts (hOB), and human monocytes (hMc) with human osteoclasts (hOC), without supplements on 3D composite (ormoHAP/Gelatin) scaffolds. They then conducted cell-material characterizations (tests) to investigate the influence of the organically modified HAP nanospheres (ormoHAP) on cell behavior and interactions in the lab. The scientists first engineered a variety of composites with ormoHAP embedded in gelatin to create multiple scaffolds for cell culture experiments, followed by testing them with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to understand the micro-/nano- architecture of the new material. They observed distinct surface patterning on the gelatin matrix due to homogenous ormoHAP distribution. Heinemann et al. produced a variety of such stable scaffolds on chemically crosslinked gelatin organic templates and tested their degradation behavior using buffer (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) or simulated body fluid (SBF) media to closely mimic in vivo biological conditions in the lab. Citation: Stimulating the differentiation of bone precursors with organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) nanospheres (2019, April 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-differentiation-bone-precursors-hydroxyapatite-ormohap.html 3D reconstructions from confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) image stacks at day 28-42 of hOB/hOC co-cultivation on gelatin scaffolds without (a), (b), with 20% (c), (d) and with 40% ormoHAP (e), (f). In the left column, actin (green), cell nuclei (blue) and CD68 (red) are visible; in the right column, actin (red), cell nuclei (blue) and TRAP (green) are visible. Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab0fad More information: 1. Organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) nanospheres stimulate the differentiation of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors: a co-culture study iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 088/1748-605X/ab0fad Christiane Heinemann et al. 15 April 2019, Biomedical Materials, IOP Science.2. Electric field-assisted formation of organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) spheres in carboxymethylated gelatin gels www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544814 Christiane Heinemann et al. October 2016, Acta Biomaterialia.3. Stimulation of osteoblast responses to biomimetic nanocomposites of gelatin-hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering scaffolds www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15792549 Kim HW et al. September 2005, Biomaterials. They observed the cell co-cultures displaying green actin skeleton, blue cell nuclei using fluorescent makers and used a red cell surface antigen marker (CD68) to detect the monocytes (hMc). Using microscopic images, the scientists observed varying cell morphology from spindle-shape to spherical-shape, detailing how cells interacted with the underlying new material. They detected TRAP, as brightly stained spots of green, increasingly concentrated within cells as the ormoHAP levels on the material surface increased, to highlight the effect of material-assisted cell growth. Heinemann et al. finally conducted gene analysis to determine the upregulation of specific markers related to cell differentiation using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Notably they investigated BSPII (bone matrix encoding protein), RANKL (receptor activator of NF- κB ligand) involved in bone modeling/remodeling and the osteoclast maker OSCAR (osteoclast associated Ig-like receptor) that resorb bone – essential for bone homeostasis. The results indicated the upregulation of BPSII and OSCAR, verifying material-assisted cell differentiation in the present work.In this way, Heinemann et al. extensively characterized cell-material interactions to understand the new, bioinspired ormoHAP materials during biofunctionalization . They showed the influence of the new scaffold-geometry on bone forming and resorbing cells, and on inter-cellular interactions with each other, using the cell co-culture study. The results will allow the scientist to achieve optimized production conditions to further improve and develop materials constructs for bioinspired materials engineering. The increased concentration of ormoHAP in the scaffolds stimulated cellular cross-talk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts as evidenced with specific markers of gene upregulation, with promising implications for further investigations of the new materials in bone tissue engineering. Gelatin is a well-suited constituent to form bioinspired materials for bone tissue engineerng, as it is a denaturation product of collagen, with abundant availability, processability, biodegradation and low antigenicity; suited to develop new biomaterials. Materials scientists previously developed similar constructs as gelatin/alginate, gelatin/chitosan, gelatin/βTCP or gelatin/HAP composite scaffolds, where mineralized composites facilitated cell proliferation compared to monophasic substrates. In vitro experiments with co-cultures of diverse cell types are better suited to test biomaterials as they represent the natural conditions of intercellular interaction to simulate cell regeneration. To more accurately replicate the conditions in vivo, Heinemann et al. previously conducted supplement-free co-cultures with osteoblasts and osteoclasts to test biomaterials during material-assisted bone regeneration. The work indicated the requirement of balanced crosstalk between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts either via soluble factors or direct cell-cell contact, for efficient bone remodeling. LEFT: Ortho-representation of TRAP-positive monocyte-derived osteoclasts after d28-d42 of co-cultivation on gelatin scaffolds with 40% ormoHAP. The images show a single slice of the stack and cross-sections along the colored lines. The actin skeletons (red), the nuclei (blue) and TRAP (green) are visible. RIGHT: Gene expression of the osteoblast-related markers ALP, BSP II, OC, RANKL and IL-6 (left) and the osteoclast-related markers TRAP, OSCAR, CALCR, VTNR and CTSK (right), as well as the housekeeping gene GAPDH, after d42/d28 of co-cultivation of hBMSC/hOB and hMc/hOC on gelatin scaffolds without (0%) ormoHAP, with 20% and with 40% ormoHAP. Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab0fad Degradation of gelatin scaffolds in PBS (a)–(c) and SBF (d) without, with 20% and with 40% ormoHAP as well as high and low cross-linking degree. Mass loss (a) and release of protein (b) as well as calcium (c), (d) in the supernatant were determined. Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab0fad Photograph of foamed composite scaffolds used for cell culture (a). SEM images of non-foamed (b) and foamed gelatin scaffolds (c). SEM image of separated ormoHAP particles, scale bar: 10 μm (d). Light microscopy images of semi-thin sections of gelatin scaffolds without (e) and with 40% ormoHAP (f). Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab0fad Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. In bone tissue engineering, for instance, researchers focus on the natural composite architecture of bone, organically designed from complex structures of mineralized collagen. The resulting bioengineered constructs include inorganic/organic composites based on native mammalian bone components such as carbonated apatite and collagen. However, microparticle incorporation to material constructs can cause complications during premature in vivo resorbability, due to their brittle nature. © 2019 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
While Dakshin serves up some incredible recipes, sometimes they also leave you wanting for more with their festivals. The recently concluded Mudaliar fest was one of them.Mudaliar dishes are garnished with legends and folktales they say. As the tale goes, this rustic peasant cuisine from the northern part of Tamil Nadu first shot to limelight in the 5th century. A Chola prince put a few dishes in the royal menu. Today, the cuisine has evolved in varied ways to suit local taste buds. Despite the fact that the cuisine has become a medley of different gastronomical genres, there are still some ingredients that have survived. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’We started with the Vazhaipoo Thattai (a vada of banana flower and Bengal gram) and Karnakezhangu Vadai (vadas made of yam, coconut, green chillies and aniseed). The Raal Varuval (grilled masala fried prawns) delectably reaches out to the carnivore in you while the Chuppal Kari (mutton coocked with capsicum, onion and spices) is a surprise package that blends tastes from the south and the north (that we are more used to). The Kozhi Chops Masala (chicken leg cooked in a masala of shallots, peppercorns and cumin) was also a burst of flavours to the palette. However, do try the Kathirikai Chops (brinjals cooked with onion, tomato, peppercorns and coconut) and the Vendhi Keerai Perattal (fenugreek leaves cooked with urad dal, green chilli and tempered mustard) – perfect for the vegetarians but a must for the non vegetarians too – they are perfect! And for the fish lovers there was a lovely Nei Meen Kazhambu (Seer fish). The dishes went like magic with the fresh appams but one could also try the malabar paranthas that Dakshin prepares so well. There was also the Thengai Pal Sadam (rice cooked in coconut milk and spices). We loved the Casa Casa Halwa (poppy seed halwa) which rounded it all off so well.Some of the Medaliar dishes are available as a part of the regular Dakshin menu so do ask them about it when you dine there next. Our verdict – we loved it, as always!
As many as nineteen mines under Schedule II (already in production) category were auctioned in the first leg held between February 14 and February 22.However, the government will decide the fate of four blocks, which came under the scanner for receiving low value bids, after an Inter-Ministerial Committee report. “Top Coal Ministry officials had a meeting with Chief Secretaries of coal-bearing states in order to ensure smooth transfer rights, title and interests in the coal mines to successful allottees. Accordingly, vesting orders would be issued on March 23 to successful bidders who grabbed mines in the first tranche of auctions,” an official said. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashThe blocks whose ownership rights would be vested to successful bidders on March 23 include Amelia (North), Ardhagram Soya, Belgaon, Bicharpur, Chotia, Gare Palma IV/4, Gare Palma IV/5, Gare Palma IV/7, Kathautia, Mandla North, Sarisatolli, Sial Ghoghri, Talabira – I, Tokisud North and Trans Damodar.Reliance Cement, GMR Chhattisgarh, Hindalco, Sunflag Iron and Steel, Jaiprakash Associates, Jaiprakash Power Ventures, OCL Iron and Steel, Bharat Aluminium, Essar Power MP, Jindal Power and UltraTech Cement had bagged these mines. Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian touristsThe four coal blocks whose vesting orders will not be issued now are Gare-Palma-IV/2 and 3, Gare-Palma-IV/1, all in Chhattisgarh and Marki Mangli-III. They were won by Jindal Steel and Power (JSPL), Balco and BS Ispat respectively. The official said the government is yet to take a call on whether to re-auction these four mines.“For the Schedule III mines (ready-for-production), the Nominated Authority will enter into pacts with successful bidders on March 16,” the official said. Fourteen mines under Schedule III were sold during the second tranche from March 4 to March 9 to firms — Usha Martin, Adani Power, JSW Steel, Mandakini Exploration adn Mining, Trimula Industries, Hindalco, Indrajit Power Private Ltd, Jindal Power, GMR Chhattisgarh Energy, Ambuja Cements, Japyee Cement, Araanya Mines Private Ltd, and Monnet Power. The blocks sold in the second tranche included Brinda & Sasai, Jitpur, Moitra, Mandakini, Meral, Dumri, Nerad Malegaon, Tara, Ganeshpur, Gare Palma, Mandla South, Lohari and Utkal C. The official said vesting order for Schedule III mines would be issued to companies on April 2. The coal auction kitty has crossed Rs two lakh crore mark surpassing CAG’s estimate of Rs 1.86 lakh crore lost due to allocating mines without auction during the previous regimes.Auctions were necessitated after the Supreme Court in September last year cancelled allocations of 204 blocks since 1993, saying their allocation was “arbitrary and illegal”.
Kolkata: Criticising the West Bengal Election Commission for “failing to conduct free and fair” panchayat elections, former Lok Sabha Speaker Somnath Chatterjee on Wednesday said democracy has been murdered in the state. “What we had seen on the day of panchayat polls was unprecedented. Was this the way rural polls were being conducted in the state? State Election Commission failed to conduct free and fair polls. Democracy has been brutally murdered in the state,” he said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsChatterjee said that many people were killed during the campaign and also on polling day and the administration was busy either hiding the number of casualties or blaming others.Sporadic violence and clashes between opposing political groups marred the West Bengal panchayat polls on Monday, and after 12 persons were killed in widespread violence during the election, post poll clashes continue to rock parts of the state.”The fight should be between ideologies not between political activists. This is shameful to witness such things happening in Bengal where people are not allowed to exercise their democratic right,” said former CPI(M) leader and MP.Ruling Trinamool Congress described his allegation as baseless.
Before you take off on a summer vacation to a destination of your choice, spare a little time to think of haircare. Hair experts offer essential tips to ensure your hair is holiday-ready and looks its best during your vacation, said a statement.Use dry shampoo: Dry shampoo has been gaining popularity recently. It is encouraged to use dry shampoo during summer for individuals more prone to oiliness. As the name suggests, dry shampoo absorbs the oil in your hair and gives it a softness, and more importantly voluminous shape. It becomes effective after a few days of not washing your hair. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Avoid excessive shampooing: If you have dry hair, it’s probably because you are washing your hair too often. People should cut back a little on the frequency of washing their hair. The reason behind this is that excessive shampooing can actually remove the natural oils that are necessary for your hair’s strength. As beach season is upon us, you are not wrong for wanting to wash that sand and chlorine out of your hair, however instead of applying shampoo, rinse the hair in the shower with a scalp massage. This revitalises the cells and exfoliates them. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAvoid blow drying: People who suffer from dandruff or a dry scalp usually expose their hair to the strong heat of a blow dryer. Excessive
Kolkata: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee today extended greetings to the people on the occasion of Eid ul-Adha and hoped that the festival of sacrifice would deepen the spirit of sharing and brotherhood. “On the occasion of Id-ul-Zuha, let us commit ourselves to the spirit of sharing and brotherhood. My best wishes to all,” Banerjee tweeted. Eid ul-Adha is also known as the festival of sacrifice or Bakrid and Eid ul-Azha (Eid ul-Zuha). Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life The festival was celebrated with religious fervour across the state with Muslims thronging idgahs and mosques for congregational prayers and to commemorate the sacrifice Prophet Ibrahim made for God which showed his faith and devotion. Eid ul-Adha marks the prophet’s sacrifice of a lamb after God spared his son Prophet Ismail. The biggest congregation in the state was held at the Red Road or Indira Gandhi Sarani in the city where thousands of people gathered for Eid prayer. Nakhoda and Tipu Sultan Mosques in the city also recorded huge gatherings on the occasion. Similar gatherings were reported from districts and major towns in the state. Dressed in their best, Muslims came out early in the morning to offer special prayers at mosques. After the prayers, they hugged and greeted each other before setting off for the ceremonial sacrifice of animals.