Imaging the brain at multiple size scales: New technique can reveal subcellular details

first_imgShare on Facebook Email MIT researchers have developed a new technique for imaging brain tissue at multiple scales, allowing them to peer at molecules within cells or take a wider view of the long-range connections between neurons.This technique, known as magnified analysis of proteome (MAP), should help scientists in their ongoing efforts to chart the connectivity and functions of neurons in the human brain, says Kwanghun Chung, the Samuel A. Goldblith Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, and a member of MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES) and Picower Institute for Learning and Memory.“We use a chemical process to make the whole brain size-adjustable, while preserving pretty much everything. We preserve the proteome (the collection of proteins found in a biological sample), we preserve nanoscopic details, and we also preserve brain-wide connectivity,” says Chung, the senior author of a paper describing the method in the July 25 issue of Nature Biotechnology. Share The researchers also showed that the technique is applicable to other organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys.The paper’s lead authors are postdoc Taeyun Ku, graduate student Justin Swaney, and visiting scholar Jeong-Yoon Park.Multiscale imagingThe new MAP technique builds on a tissue transformation method known as CLARITY, which Chung developed as a postdoc at Stanford University. CLARITY preserves cells and molecules in brain tissue and makes them transparent so the molecules inside the cell can be imaged in 3-D. In the new study, Chung sought a way to image the brain at multiple scales, within the same tissue sample.“There is no effective technology that allows you to obtain this multilevel detail, from brain region connectivity all the way down to subcellular details, plus molecular information,” he says.To achieve that, the researchers developed a method to reversibly expand tissue samples in a way that preserves nearly all of the proteins within the cells. Those proteins can then be labeled with fluorescent molecules and imaged.The technique relies on flooding the brain tissue with acrylamide polymers, which can form a dense gel. In this case, the gel is 10 times denser than the one used for the CLARITY technique, which gives the sample much more stability. This stability allows the researchers to denature and dissociate the proteins inside the cells without destroying the structural integrity of the tissue sample.Before denaturing the proteins, the researchers attach them to the gel using formaldehyde, as Chung did in the CLARITY method. Once the proteins are attached and denatured, the gel expands the tissue sample to four or five times its original size.“It is reversible and you can do it many times,” Chung says. “You can then use off-the-shelf molecular markers like antibodies to label and visualize the distribution of all these preserved biomolecules.”There are hundreds of thousands of commercially available antibodies that can be used to fluorescently tag specific proteins. In this study, the researchers imaged neuronal structures such as axons and synapses by labeling proteins found in those structures, and they also labeled proteins that allow them to distinguish neurons from glial cells.“We can use these antibodies to visualize any target structures or molecules,” Chung says. “We can visualize different neuron types and their projections to see their connectivity. We can also visualize signaling molecules or functionally important proteins.”High resolutionOnce the tissue is expanded, the researchers can use any of several common microscopes to obtain images with a resolution as high as 60 nanometers — much better than the usual 200 to 250-nanometer limit of light microscopes, which are constrained by the wavelength of visible light. The researchers also demonstrated that this approach works with relatively large tissue samples, up to 2 millimeters thick.“This is, as far as I know, the first demonstration of super-resolution proteomic imaging of millimeter-scale samples,” Chung says.Currently, efforts to map the connections of the human brain rely on electron microscopy, but Chung and colleagues demonstrated that the higher-resolution MAP imaging technique can trace those connections more accurately.Chung’s lab is now working on speeding up the imaging and the image processing, which is challenging because there is so much data generated from imaging the expanded tissue samples.“It’s already easier than other techniques because the process is really simple and you can use off-the-shelf molecular markers, but we are trying to make it even simpler,” Chung says.center_img Share on Twitter Pinterest LinkedInlast_img read more

Lawyer: Accused Stalker Denies Charges

first_imgTodd TuttleAn attorney for the man accused of stalking a Hampton Bays High School employee with ammunition in his pocket and bringing a rifle on to school grounds says he vehemently denies the allegations made against him.Todd Tuttle, 46, of Hampton Bays, was arrested on April 17 for stalking a female employee at the high school and trespassing for refusing to leave. He was later found to have ammunition in his pocket that went to a semi-automatic 9mm Stag Rifle, which was in his truck in the parking lot, Southampton Town Police said. Tuttle was rearrested a day later for allegedly violating an order of protection by returning to the school and going back and forth outside.Hampton Bays attorney James Vhladamis said Friday he was privately retained by Tuttle to represent him and that he “vehemently denies the allegations made against him” in regard to his initial and subsequent arrest. There is a contradiction of the facts and allegations in Tuttle’s case according to witnesses, Vhladamis said.“We are going to vigorously defend him and we are going to go full speed ahead,” he added.Tuttle is being held on $50,000 bail at Suffolk County Correctional Facility in Yaphank, according to Chief Michael Sharkey’s Office. He is scheduled to appear in court again on May 9.Police said Tuttle was spotted by a high school employee, who called cops to the high school to report a case of possible stalking, and he allegedly tried to get one over by saying he was watching his son play at the lacrosse game, but he was called on it and was asked to leave and refused. He had been repeatedly stalking the female employee, who has not been identified, for several weeks, stemming from a domestic conflict between her family and his, police said.When he was placed under arrest for trespassing, the scenario unfolded from there, with police allegedly locating the rifle in Tuttle’s truck. No one was harmed in the Sharelast_img read more

South Fork News

first_imgMusic And Yoga At RogersThe Rogers Memorial Library will offer a jam session for local musicians on Thursday, March 12, at 7 PM. Bringing your own instruments is allowed. There will be a Steinway piano and microphones available.Restorative Yoga: Deep Release Through Total Support with Mary Sammon will be held on Saturday, March 14, from 2 to 4 PM. The fee is $25 and advanced registration is required. For more information go to Mayor Q&AMeet Southampton Village Mayor Jesse Warren on Friday, March 13, from 5 to 6 PM at the Southampton History Museum. There will be a question-and-answer session to address anything concerning the village and an update on what’s going on around the area. Admission is free. For more information visit’s SymposiumThe Stony Brook Center of Excellence for Alzheimer’s Disease will hold a symposium at Stony Brook University Southampton on Friday, March 13, from 8 AM to 12:30 PM. Learn how to recognize the use of physical and occupational therapy and speech/language to improve the quality of life for dementia patients. For more information go to Island And The SeaPulitzer-prize winning author and Newsday staff writer Bill Bleyer will share from his latest book, “Long Island and the Sea: A Maritime History,” on Sunday, March 15, from 2 to 4 PM at the Amagansett Library. The discussion will cover the development of submarines and torpedoes tested in local waters, the landing of Pan Am Clippers in Port Washington, the adventures of Thomas Welcome Roys, the first captain to hunt whales in the Arctic Ocean, and more. A question-and-answer session will follow.For more information go to Irish Soda breadThe Westhampton Free Library is inviting families to learn how to make Irish soda bread on Sunday, March 15, at 2 PM.Children in kindergarten through third grade are invited to express themselves by painting with artist Joyce Raimondo of the Pollock-Krasner House on Wednesday, March 18, at 6 PM. For more information on library events and to register visit of Commerce MixerThe East Hampton Chamber of Commerce and Babette’s Restaurant will co-host a mixer on Wednesday, March 18, from 5 to 7 PM at the restaurant. Happy hour pricing and complimentary hors d’oeuvres will be available. Admission is free for members or future members and $15 for non-members. For more information, visit In PlaceA 27 East Press Sessions conversation will focus on “aging in place, a plan for staying put” on Thursday, March 19, from noon to 2 PM at the Mill Roadhouse in Westhampton Beach. Tickets are $35 for a three-course lunch. For more information, visit Eventbrite.Caregiver Kits AvailableCaregiver kits are available for a 14-day loan from the Bridgehampton Library for individuals living with dementia, memory loss, and loss of mobility.Each kit includes books of short inspiring stories, puzzles, sorting activities, games, and art activities to provide not just physical activity but prompt conversation and encourage the sharing of stories and memories. There are 14 kits in all, each varying in theme and skill level. For more information visit Mental Health SeriesThe East End Mental Health Awareness Initiative has planned a free three-part series title “Self Help for Mental Health; Exploring the Benefits of Movement, Meditation, and Nutrition,” at the East Hampton Middle School. The first of the series, meditation, was held Tuesday March 10. Each presentation will show a feature video followed by discussion and demonstrations. Other dates are March 17 and 24, at 6:30 PM at East Hampton Middle School. All programs are free and open to the public. For more information call 631-702-2423 or visit Sharelast_img read more

Metso Outotec publishes positive profit information

first_imgPekka Vauramo, president and CEO, Metso OutotecThe announcement comes ahead of the sustainable technology and recycling specialist’s half year report, which will be published on August 5 and will comprise the first financial results since the newly merged business began operations at the start of this month under the leadership of president and CEO Pekka Vauramo.Sales for the second quarter totalled €1,045 million (US$1,227 million), only slightly down year on year, while the half year total of €2,026 million ($2,378 million) was up by just over 2% on the same period for 2019.The group said the positive outlook was due to “the mining industry being relatively less affected by Covid-19, healthy product margins and delivery capabilities as well as rapid and successful cost saving actions.”Despite increases in EBITA (earnings before interest, tax and amortisation) for both the second quarter and half year, operating profit for the three months ending June 30 is €90 million ($106 million) or 8.6% – down from 10.4% in 2019 -and for the first six months it is 7.8% (down from 10.1%).Metso Outotec said this was affected by cost adjustments related to the completion of Metso’s partial demerger and the merger of the minerals business and Outotec.Metso Minerals’ sales for the first half of 2020 were €1,447 million ($1,699 million), with Outotec at €579 million ($679 million). Finland-based Metso Outotec has published preliminary information on its second-quarter results, which it believes are better than market expectations.#*#*Show Fullscreen*#*#last_img read more

Conservatives put housebuilding centre stage

first_imgSubscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe now for unlimited access Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY To continue enjoying, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGINlast_img read more

Globalink executes multimodal move

first_imgGlobalink’s scope of work included loading, crating, sea freight, road freight and Customs clearance at destination.Mobile cranes had to be positioned for loading onto the chartered vessel for the trip from Bilbao to St Petersburg. At St Petersburg, personnel from Globalink’s project office supervised reloading onto sea-river barges for carriage down the Volga Don River to the Caspian Sea port of Astrakhan.Upon docking, the crushers were offloaded and lashed onto low bed trailers, and departed at once for the job site.Globalink Logistics Group is a member of the Worldwide Project Consortium (WWPC) network representing Kazakhstan.

Seniors’ event

first_imgTom Rhode, 85, and Milly Daniels, 92, both from Sunnyside, were among the guests at the event. Ward 48 councillor, Magedien Davids, hosted a seniors’ event on Wednesday March 11 at the Dulcie September civic centre. A total of 400 seniors were treated to a three-course meal, entertainment and a gift.last_img

False report of gunman at Los Angeles airport causes panic

first_img Published: August 29, 2016 5:55 AM EDT LOS ANGELES (AP) – Reports of a gunman opening fire that turned out to be false caused panicked evacuations at Los Angeles International Airport on Sunday night, while flights to and from the airport saw major delays.A search through terminals brought no evidence of a gunman or shots fired, Los Angeles police spokesman Andy Neiman said. The reports were spurred by loud noises only, and police were still investigating to find the source of them, Neiman said.Airport officials said that a person wearing a Zorro costume was detained during the incident, but it wasn’t yet clear whether the person had any connection to the evacuation.The incident stirred chaos as hundreds of people rushed from terminals on to sidewalks or the tarmac. And it left a mess with three terminals shut down, roads closed and flights held in the air and on the ground.All terminals and roads into the airport had been reopened by 11 p.m. PDT, about two hours after the initial reports, officials said. But massive backup faced travelers in their cars and in security lines. Passengers who fled had to be rescreened through security.When the incident began, scores of people could be seen on social media and on TV news running from the terminal out on to the sidewalks and streets as police with rifles out stormed terminals. Many other evacuees were standing on the airport tarmac, and abandoned bags littered some sidewalks.“We were on the jetway and someone starts pushing behind us,” Jon Landis, a sales representative from Boston who was boarding a flight home, told The Associated Press. “One man was frantic saying there was a shooter.”Police officers, including one with a shotgun, eventually led passengers out of the terminal, through a security gate, and into a parking lot – where several hundred waited for the terminal to reopen. Ninety minutes after the scare, Landis said he was still waiting for word on his flight.Passenger Scott McDonald said he was getting off a plane in the middle of the incident and was told by the crew to get back on. He said looking out the window he could see many evacuees gathered out on the tarmac, a strange sight even for someone who travels almost constantly.“I’ve never seen passengers, just normal people, on the tarmac anywhere in the United States,” McDonald told KCAL-TV.Douglas Lee, who was traveling home to Albuquerque with his wife and son, said the greatest danger was being trampled.“You can imagine hundreds of adults trying to go through an exit door,” he explained. At one point, he said he picked up his young son left their luggage.Corey Rosenbusch was relaxing inside a terminal club on a layover flight from his home in Washington, D.C., to Sydney, Australia, when the lights went off and the staff told everyone to shelter in place.“People immediately started looking at social media, where they saw reports that there was an active shooter,” Rosenbusch told the AP.He said several officers, including some with assault rifles, led the group out of the area.The incident came just days after another false alarm led to a panicked evacuation of Kennedy Airport in New York.In that incident, police were investigating whether an overly boisterous celebration of the Olympics on Aug. 14 led to noises that were misinterpreted as gunfire, with the ensuing chain reaction turning into a panic as crowds ran to evacuate.The Los Angeles airport had an actual shooting in November 2013, when a man opened fire in the terminal, killing a security agent and wounding three other people. Author: The Associated Press False report of gunman at Los Angeles airport causes panic center_img Do you see a typo or an error? Let us know. SHARElast_img read more

Magna Carta: stitch in time

first_imgChris is one of 40 current and former prisoners who contributed to a 13 metre-long embroidery forming part of the British Library’s Magna Carta exhibition.The stitching depicts Magna Carta’s Wikipedia page, with contributors stitching phrases of significance to them. Former lord chief justice Lord Judge contributed ‘habeas corpus’, while pop star Jarvis Cocker contributed ‘common people’. Another participant was fugitive Julian Assange, who stitched ‘freedom’.‘I wanted to create a portrait of our age,’ the designer, artist Cornelia Parker, said. ‘I love the idea of taking something digital and making it into an analogue, hand-crafted thing.’Magna Carta (An Embroidery) is on display until 24 July at the British Library, London.last_img

IPO to value Gateley at £100m

first_imgSeven Gateley partners are set to share £20m on 8 June when the national commercial firm floats on the Alternative Investment Market.According to documents filed with the stock exchange today, the initial public offering will raise £30m and value the new company at £100m.Institutional investors Schroder Investment Management and Miton Asset Management are subscribing for 8% and 5.6% stakes respectively.On 8 June, Gateley will admit 105.2 million ordinary shares of ten pence each at 95p each. The IPO represents a 30% stake in the firm.Post-admission, the partners with the biggest share of equity will be chief executive (senior partner) Michael Ward, chief operating officer (managing partner) Peter Davies and board members Brendan McGeever and London office head Paul Hayward. Each will have a 3.12% stake valued at £3.12m.Birmingham partner Callum Nuttall will have a 2.75% stake valued at £2.75m, while corporate recovery head Mark Wilson, and banking and finance head Andrew Madden each get 2.4%, worth £2.4m each.Schroder and Miton are taking stakes worth £8m and £5.6m respectively.last_img read more